The Fundamentals

The more that scientists search for a single, unifying Theory of Everything (ToE), the more they learn that the universe, and life within it, consists of numerous mutually-dependent laws that give evidence of intentional precise order and arrangement. Although these are individual laws, they are all intrinsically linked in a special way …

Scientists have so far discovered numerous sub-atomic particles (so many that physicist Michio Kaku said that they are “drowning in particles”), each subject to its own set of laws and inviolable principles that restrict its functions to a predefined set of actions and parameters. These functions work in harmony with other particles, laws, and principles to produce the order and arrangement that surrounds and binds us. This results in a very specific arrangement at every level of matter: from quantum particles, to atoms, to molecules, to DNA, to body organs, to animals and humans, all the way up the size scale to superclusters of galaxies! Without this “order and arrangement” there would be no stable formations of matter to produce anything meaningful, let alone life!

And these “levels of matter” form a super-dependency; there is so much interaction between particles, molecules, and the larger formations of matter, that the slightest variation in the above-mentioned laws and principles, would result in a catastrophic breakdown of the order and arrangement to the extent that life as we know it becomes impossible!

The argumentation provided in this article is a compelling treatise on these fixed and ordered patterns of objects and forces that science has discovered. For example:

protein_calculation3
See ‘What On Earth Can Perform at 25 Billion Actions per Hour?’ (below)

Evidence of Intentional Precise Order and
Arrangement — Sample 1

dna.code

manThe first image here is a representation of a tiny sample of DNA. The second picture is a simple image of the human form — consisting of just 90 pixels or dots (30 “black” and 60 “white”) — which was sent by scientists into deep space in 1974, using the radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico as part of a collaborative project. The purpose of the project was to present evidence to would-be deep space recipients that the transmission had an intelligent origin. The image did contain other symbols: a radio telescope, a representation of DNA, etc., as shown by the colour image below.

“Hey, humans are here!”

areciboEach part of this image was carefully planned by scientists, including the late Professor Carl Sagan.1

Any watchful “intelligence” that potentially existed on the target planetary system would, according to the plan, be able to reconstruct and at least partially interpret this image.

But do you not see here a curious dichotomy, a sort of contradictory logic? … It seems that this image was intended to be seen (or “heard”) by intelligent recipients who could (potentially) conclude that this image, due to its evident logical order and arrangement, was sent by a life-form that possessed a good measure of intelligence!

Yet, some fail to reach the same conclusion when they see the far superior “order and arrangement” of DNA — the machine code of life!

Does the above Arecibo image, possessing just 1,679 “bits” of serendipitouscarefully ordered and arranged information, convey the idea that someone with a high degree of intelligence originated the image? On the other hand, did the 3.2 billion “bits” of specifically arranged information in the DNA code … happen by a serendipitous series of chance events?

To enlarge on this “dichotomy”: The term “bits of DNA” implies simplicity, inasmuch as the “bits” that were sent by the Arecibo telescope were single units of energy — i.e. the Arecibo image really did consist of just 1,679 bits, nothing more, nothing less. But there is no simplicity with DNA, even at this level. The “bits” are not simply the two-states of computer bits that are either “0” or “1” — off or on — black or white. Each DNA “bit” consists of a molecular structure that is bound by the “numerous laws” of quantum and atomic physics (e.g. quark interactivity, atomic and nuclear binding, electron behaviour, finely balanced electromagnetic and nuclear forces, water molecule interactivity, etc.), each law contributing to the stable structure of the molecule.

Note particularly that — raising the level above that of the atomic — DNA is concerned with life at three levels:

(1) the cellular level,
(2) the organ level, and
(3) the complete individual.

Each strand of DNA has built-in mechanisms that control the development, growth, security, nutritional requirements, and accurate placement of every cell during (1) the early development stage, (2) the functioning of a complete body organ during later development stages, (3) the well-being of the person as a whole from birth onwards, not to forget (4) the perpetuation of the species for the entire process to begin all over again! Pretty good planning!

The Curious Inscription

By way of illustration, let us imagine that your lifetime’s goal is to take possession of your very own island! Additionally, you want an island untouched by human hands, where no man has ever “boldly gone before”. You spend your extended family’s entire accumulated fortune to buy this island, which you are assured is unspoilt; it is certified as never having been inhabited, nor touched, by any human.
my-very-own-islandHowever, after taking possession of your island and traversing its length and breadth, you encounter an inscription on a mountain rock-face: “Mr. John Williams, 19th July 1881.” This is carved into the side of this rocky mountain. What would your natural conclusion be after seeing this? Would you assume that this inscription resulted from millions of years of freak winds or water erosion? Or rather would you not arrive at the obvious conclusion that someone had deliberately etched these words into the rock? carvedinrockWould you not agree that this would be evidence of intentional precise order and arrangement?

Something to Get Your Teeth Into

Consider for another example the human body. When you see the logical arrangement of body organs, fluids, hard tissue, soft tissue, blood vessels, nerve fibers, muscles, tendons, sinews, etc., does this not invoke a similar “obvious conclusion”?

teeth-1-2
Image courtesy  of dentistryforyou.co.uk

Do you suppose that each tooth within the mouth cavity originally arose over considerable time one tooth after another; or by contrast do you think they were all created spontaneously in a single spurt of growth? Does not the arrangement, placement, width, length, quality, and usefulness of each tooth indicate intentional design? (When an archaeologist finds a flint at a dig site, with a sharp edge and smooth hand-grip neatly chiselled, does he or she not conclude that this is a deliberately crafted artefact with the result that the item is thereafter kept on display in a museum?)
doggerflintOr do you consider that each tooth just happened to sprout up in the appropriate place, with its specific quality of hardness, its specially fashioned sharp edge and its ideal size; and in the course of time this sprouting activity managed to complete the familiar half-moon arrangement within the upper mouth cavity, including pairs of teeth that happen to match on both sides of the mouth; and then, toothin the same fashion, the lower-jaw teeth sprang up in neat succession one after another, to correspond, tooth-by-tooth, with their counterparts in the upper jaw?

But the questions do not end here. How does the Darwinian argument account for, not only the above, but also for the convenient situation of:

  1. no teeth at birth ideally suited for breast-feeding,
  2. baby-teeth during the early years of immaturity and rapid growth, then
  3. adult teeth for the “finished product”?

Does this not point to the natural conclusion of “intentional precise order and arrangement”?

Random Letters Do Not a Shakespeare Make

This argument bears some resemblance to the story of the 1,000 monkeys who were given 1,000 typewriters and unlimited resources.

monkeys_in_a_room4
“No bananas until one of you succeeds!”

(The word honorificabilitudinitatibus occurs in Shakespeare’s play Love’s Labour’s Lost, uttered by the character Costard, the clown, Act V, Scene 1. It is the longest word in the works of Shakespeare.)

The assertion was that they would eventually write the complete works of Shakespeare character-for-character.

However, the story must be changed somewhat:

The 8 paragraphs below contain the modified story, with a legend beneath them to show the real-life components that are being described…

Take 1,000 monkeys, a huge quantity of all the essential elements, and unlimited time, they would (allegedly) eventually produce the following:

(1) A code5 that would form the basis of a complex — and complete — instruction set6 (much as a computer requires machine code to operate).

(2) A template1 based on that code5 that would enable a self-contained and complete production unit2 to be built (a unit that, by itself, would not produce the complete product8, but, when combined with other units, would produce the complete product8).

(3) The monkeys would arrange the instruction set6 so that it would serve all the needs of this self-contained production unit2.

(4) The monkeys would also include code5 to future-proof this template1 by including as many variations of the production unit2 as will be necessary for the ultimate production of a larger self-contained unit3, which will use many disparate units2 functioning together in a correlated and coordinated way; but the code5 would be super-efficient by keeping all variations available within the one template1.

(5) Upon the completion of the design of this “production unit,”2 the monkeys would include code to make it self-replicating.

(6) The monkeys would ensure that additional code5 in this template1 produced a complete set of self-organising, self-repairing, and self-regulating components which would serve as on-demand machines4, that would not only benefit the unit2 that manufactured them, but would also provide services for other units2.

(7) Within the completed instruction set6, the monkeys would include the necessary code to build the above components4 rapidly whenever they were required (including the complex instructions7 to produce around 200,000 different types).

(8) The monkeys would have the foresight to build into this template1 accurately measured time-delayed actions that would produce the right units2 and components4 at the right time to eventually build a complete and highly ordered self-contained unit3.

1 Stem cell.
2 The human cell.
3 The human body.
4 Proteins, ATP, enzymes, etc.
5 DNA.
6 Chromosomes.
7 For example, protein folding (see below).
8 Intelligent life, according to its generally accepted definition.

space-shuttle-foldoutA tall order! However, the above is merely a simplistic analogy that fails to take account of the many additional design features of the human cell.

Indeed, the Darwin supporters’ myth is more far-fetched than expecting a windstorm to produce a fully automated NASA Space Shuttle in just a few hours (the time it takes a strand of human DNA to be copied)!

TOE becomes NMDL

What On Earth Can Perform at 25 Billion Actions per Hour?

But this is just the beginning of a long series of interesting and persuasive arguments. What else is the DNA code responsible for?
proteinfoldingThis is an image (an artist’s impression) of a protein — manufactured inside the cell — known as a “3-stranded beta sheet.” As its name suggests, it consists of three ribbon-like strands of protein that bind together. In total, these sheets contain up to 90 amino acids (the “building blocks” of life).  — See References and Bibliography below.

As per the discussion in the book Dynamic Evolution (UK edition, or click here for the US edition), the shape a protein is folded into, determines the function that it will perform within the cell.

In theory these proteins can take on any of 10^90 different shapes, i.e. 1 followed by 90 zeros:
1, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 shape combinations.
combinationsIf these combinations were tried at the rate of 100 billion per second (requiring modern computers to calculate), it would take longer than the age of the universe to find the correct shape.

And yet, inside the cells of the human body, more than 7 million of these proteins are folded in just one secondIf you were asked to write a computer program that could do that, how would you go about it? Yet, the “code” (the instructions) to do this for all the 200,000 different protein types is built into every copy of DNA in almost every cell!

In our discussion so far, how much complexity have you seen in this cursory look at DNA in comparison to the 1,679-pixel image above? But the complexity is about to rise again by many orders of magnitude!


The “order and arrangement” of body cells written into DNA is even more remarkable when we consider the brain.
neural_networkingProfessor Sir Robin Murray, one of the UK’s leading psychiatrists, describes the human brain as the most complex known object in the universe.

The late Isaac Asimov, professor of biochemistry at Boston University, USA, and well-known science fiction writer, once said: “The human brain … is the most complicated organization of matter that we know.”

The human brain’s processing power makes even modern computers look like crude abacus counting devices.

Neuro-scientists believe the brain is capable of handling 100 trillion instructions per second, and quite possibly a whole lot more than that!

Although the latest supercomputers are said to handle a similar number of instructions per second, only a few people can actually use them, and they only deal with very low level, simplistic instructions synchronously (one at a time — per processor), whereas the human brain handles immense complexity asynchronously. For example, the eye alone transmits some 100 million pieces of complex information to the brain per second, whilst at the same time innumerable signals are travelling to and from the brain along some 90,000 miles (150,000 kilometres) of the body’s nerve fibres. These nerve fibres themselves are precisely arranged to cover almost all parts of the body.

However, the total combined length of all the nerve fibres in the human body is dwarfed by that of the connections between brain cells. In an adult human brain, if the connections were laid end-to-end, they would circle the earth more than four times!
neurons2Some scientists theorise that the neurons in the brain use quantum principles to perform calculations. The complexity of these calculations makes the expression “astronomical numbers” seem as simple as counting on the fingers of your hand!

One clue that this is how the brain works is the concept of consciousness, sentience, that mysterious quality of life that makes us self-aware, possessing self-identity; including the ability to have sensory experiences, memories, and thoughts; and the thing that makes you, you. For a further discussion on this subject, see the book Dynamic Evolution. Click here for the US edition.

■ What do you think? Did these multiple inter-related, mutually dependent layers of design features — from tiny atomic particles to body organs — arrange themselves into this complicated, exquisite formation?


Evidence of Intentional Precise Order and
Arrangement — Sample 2

photons
(Picture courtesy of science.howstuffworks.com)

Colour is an excellent example of “dynamic dependencies” requiring precise order and arrangement at the quantum, atomic, molecular, and sometimes also the cellular and organ levels (see below).

The above image — at the atomic level — shows an atom’s electron dropping from one “orbit” to a lower “orbit” and emitting a “photon” of light of a specific colour in the process.

morpho_4

salaginella_2Iridescent colour
 is found in both animals and plants.

The structure that produces this beautiful effect is identical in almost every case: a perfectly ordered molecular arrangement at a level so small it is precisely the size of a light wave (in the above case blue). According to the exponents of Darwinian Evolution, such features are the result of the accumulation of millions of years of change! So how could these identical advanced molecular design features be present in both plants and animals? Note the following electron microscope image:
vukusic_image4-300x215These structures — resembling trees with uniformly spaced branches — are too small for anything but electron microscopes to see.

The distance between the “branches” is so precise that only light-waves of a very specific colour range are reflected back to our eyes, as the image below demonstrates:

iridescence
This is what makes these shimmering colours in nature so beautiful.

How did these characteristics appear in the cells of ancient plants and flowers as well as in the living cells of relatively modern animal skins, shells, and eyes? A common reply from proponents of Darwin’s evolution is that accumulated characteristics are passed onto offspring from generation to generation, resulting in a mechanism that produces iridescent colour… Not a very comprehensive answer. Additionally, there is the following major problem with this reply: How is it that the same mechanism is found in rocks, crystals, gemstones, and other inorganic minerals?

iridescent_ammolite

■ What do you think? Did these multiple inter-related, mutually dependent layers of design features — from tiny atomic particles to body organs — arrange themselves into this complicated, exquisite formation?


Evidence of Intentional Precise Order and
Arrangement — Sample 3

aquaporinAquaporins: the water channels of almost every one of the 100 000 000 000 000 (one hundred trillion) cells in each human body.

These remarkable proteins have only been discovered in recent decades.

But these molecular channels are also found in “lower” animals and even plant cells (including fungi), and in bacteria. Again, according to the exponents of Darwinian Evolution, such features are the result of the accumulation of millions of years of change! So how could these identical advanced molecular design features be present in “humble” bacteria that Darwin supporters say was associated with the initial “spark of life”?

■ What do you think? Did these multiple inter-related, mutually dependent layers of design features — from tiny atomic particles to body organs — arrange themselves into this complicated, exquisite formation?


Evidence of Intentional Precise Order and
Arrangement — Sample 4

chemical-bonding

Atoms bonding chemically: an example of precise order and arrangement at the quantum, atomic, and molecular levels. It is only due to the fine-tuned conditions that exist at all of these levels, that chemical bonding essential to life, and also to the superior quality of life, can occur at all.

For example, the strong nuclear force that binds the constituents of protons and neutrons together at the centre of atoms, is 1040 times stronger than the force of gravity. That’s a ‘1’ followed by 40 zeros:

10 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 times stronger!

Yet the measure of this force is so finely balanced that an unimaginably tiny variation of its strength, one way or another, would prevent the multitude of chemical processes that life depends on! Additionally, the balance between the strong nuclear force and the electromagnetic force affects the way protons and neutrons can combine to make stable atomic nuclei. This balance has to be mind-bogglingly fine-tuned for life to be possible.


Evidence of Intentional Precise Order and
Arrangement — Sample 5

back.to.the.future

In the 1990 film ‘Back to the Future III’ starring Michael J. Fox, Christopher Lloyd, and Mary Steenburgen (pictured above), the white-haired ‘Doc’ is discussing the idea of love at first sight. In his usual clinical fashion, he says to Marty: “There’s no scientific rationale for that.” Marty replies disparagingly: “Come on Doc, it’s not science!”

And this brings us to sample number 5, involving matters that are beyond the realm of science.

pointing_finger4This point is highlighted by the fact that sex relations between a man and a woman can produce life, new life. And it is the initial “spark of life” that evolutionists believe happened spontaneously millions of years ago.

Spiritual.NeedExponents of Darwin’s theory frequently claim that their view is “scientific” in contrast to the “unscientific” biblical idea of an Originator. However, there are two basic questions that proponents of Darwin would do well to consider:

(1) Has there ever been a scientific experiment that has demonstrated this chance event that produced the “spark of life”?

(2) Has there ever been a scientific experiment that has demonstrated that life does not come from non-living matter?

Question (1) is a challenge that has never been successfully met. It is noteworthy that some scientists have produced interesting results that some have claimed “prove” this chance-event experimentally (the famous “Miller experiment” is just one). However, in each case scientists have used existing materials, for example components from DNA. They have never succeeded in building from elementary materials into a working, demonstrable, scientific “model.”

By contrast, an experiment does exist for question (2). In 1861, Louis Pasteur performed experiments which demonstrated that organisms such as bacteria and fungi do not spontaneously arise in sterile, nutrient-rich media, but could only appear by incursion from without. Whilst this does not in itself prove that life could never spontaneously arise under any conditions, it is a scientific test nonetheless. The burden of proof rests with defenders of Darwin to produce genuine evidence to the contrary.

Pasteur summed up the situation with the following:

“Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow of this simple experiment.”

Because, of course, science is built on experimentation. If something cannot be substantiated experimentally, it is not regarded as true science. There are no experiments that support the “branch nodes” of Darwinian Evolution, including the spontaneous generation of life.

Where Is the “Evidence”?

As we have seen above, there is an abundance of evidence that the universe, and life within it, was intentionally planned, structured, and organised. By contrast, adherents of Darwinian Evolution frequently point to blind chance — serendipity — as the sole cause of the above Samples 1-5. Their hope is that one day evidence will present itself, perhaps in the form of a comprehensive, universal formula that links it all together!

dependency

Thus, a very specific set of particles with their respective laws serves to build an atom. These in turn are each subject to their own set of laws and inviolable principles that result in the periodic table. And so the pattern continues, all the way up to the largest objects in the universe. Stars and galaxies, and the other objects that populate space, are confined by laws such as gravity, thermodynamics, energy conservation, and numerous other principles.

The conclusion then is clear: from the tiniest of particles to the grandest of super-galaxies, there is evidence of intentional order, arrangement, and design

But where do we go from here?


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Footnotes

1 Author of Cosmos — a book and television series presented in the 1980’s — also former David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences and director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University, New York.


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